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S.192

Introduced by   Senator Illuzzi of Essex-Orleans District

Referred to Committee on

Date:

Subject:  Crimes and criminal procedure;

Statement of purpose:  This bill proposes to establish a comprehensive system to permit law enforcement to obtain a warrant to use wire, electronic, and oral intercepts, pen registers, and trap and trace devices in the detection of criminal activity.

AN ACT RELATING TO WIRETAPPING AND ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE

It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont:

Sec. 1.  13 V.S.A. chapter 155, subchapter1 is added and §§ 4701-4703 are designated as:

Subchapter 1.  General Provisions 

Sec. 2.  13 V.S.A. chapter 155, subchapter 2 is added to read:

Subchapter 2.  Interception of Wire, Electronic, and Oral Communications

§ 4741.  DEFINITIONS

As used in this subchapter:

(1)  “Aggrieved person” means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communications or against whom the interception was directed.

(2)  “Communications common carrier” has the meaning given the term “common carrier” by 47 U.S.C. § 153(h).

(3)  “Contents,” when used with respect to any wire, electronic, or oral communications, includes any information concerning the identity of the parties to that communication or the existence, substance, purport, or meaning of that communication.

(4)  “Designated offense” means an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of more than two years.

(5)  “Electronic communications” means a transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photo-electronic, or

photo-optical system, but does not include:

(A)  wire or oral communications;

(B)  communications made through a tone-only paging device; or

(C)  communications from a tracking device.

(6)  “Electronic communications service” means any service that enables its users to send and receive wire or electronic communications.

(7)  “Electronic, mechanical, or other device” means any device or apparatus which can be used to intercept wire, electronic, or oral communications other than:

(A)  Any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, facility, or any component of one, furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communications service in the ordinary course of its business, and being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business or by an investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of duties; or

(B)  A hearing aid or similar device used to correct or compensate for a hearing impairment.

(8)  “Intercept” means aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communications through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device.

(9)  “Judicial officer” means a justice of the Vermont supreme court or a superior or district judge.

(10)  “Law enforcement officer” means any officer of the United States, any person employed by the department of public safety and certified by the Vermont criminal justice training council as having satisfactorily completed the approved training programs required to meet the minimum training standards applicable to that person pursuant to section 2358 of Title 20, the attorney general, an assistant attorney general, a state’s attorney, or a deputy state’s attorney.

(11)  “Oral communications” means any oral communications uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that the communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying that expectation, but this term does not include any electronic communications.

(12)  “Person” means any natural person, individual, corporation, or other legal entity, whether or not an officer, agent, or employee of the United States, a state, or a political subdivision of a state.

(13)  “Prosecutor” means the attorney general, an assistant attorney general, a state’s attorney, or a deputy state’s attorney.

(14)  “User” means a person or entity who:

(A)  uses an electronic communications service; and

(B)  is authorized by the provider of the service to engage in that use.

(15)  “Wire communications” means an aural transfer made in whole or in part using facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other connection between the point of origin and the point of reception, including the use of a connection in a switching station, furnished or operated by a person engaged in providing or operating facilities for the transmission of communications; this term includes any electronic storage of this communication.

§ 4742.  APPLICATION FOR ORDERS

(a)  A prosecutor may apply ex parte to a judicial officer for an order authorizing the interception of any wire, electronic, or oral communications. Each application ex parte for an order must be in writing, subscribed, and sworn to by the applicant.

(b)  The application must contain:

(1)  The identity of the officer making the application;

(2)  A full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances that justify the applicant’s belief that an order should be issued, including:

(A)  An affidavit of a law enforcement officer establishing probable cause to believe:

(i)  that a particular designated offense has been, is being, or is about to be committed;

(ii)  that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through the interception; and

(iii)  that the facilities from which or the place where the wire, electronic, or oral communications are to be intercepted, are being used, or are about to be used in connection with the commission of the designated offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by the individual, if known, who has committed, is committing, or will commit the designated offense.

(B)  A description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communications are to be intercepted.

(C)  A particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted.

(D)  The identity of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted.

(3)  A full and complete statement as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tried and failed, or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried, or that they are too dangerous.

(4)  A statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained.  If the nature of the investigation dictates that the authorization of interception should not automatically terminate when the described type of communication has been first obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause to believe that additional communications of the same type will subsequently occur.

(5)  A full and complete statement of the facts concerning all previous applications known to the individual making the application, made to the presiding justice of the superior court for authorization to intercept wire, electronic, or oral communications involving any of the same persons, facilities, or places specified in the application and the action taken by the judicial officer who reviewed each application.

(6)  Where the application is for the extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results obtained from the interception to that point or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain the results.

(c)  The judicial officer may require the applicant to furnish additional testimony or documentary evidence in support of the application.  Such additional testimony or documentation shall be recorded and incorporated as part of the application.

(d)  Probable cause shall be based upon substantial evidence, which may be hearsay in whole or in part, provided that there is a substantial basis for believing the source of the hearsay to be credible and for believing that there is a factual basis for the information furnished.

§ 4743.  Issuance of orders

(a)  Upon receipt of an application, the judicial officer may enter an ex parte order, as required or as modified, authorizing the interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications if the judicial officer determines that:

(1)  there is probable cause for belief that a person is committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular designated offense;

(2)  there is probable cause for belief that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through the interception;

(3)  normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried, or are too dangerous; and

(4)  there is probable cause for belief that the facilities from which or the place where the wire, electronic, or oral communications are to be intercepted, are being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission of the offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by the individual.

(b)  If the facilities from which wire, electronic, or oral communications are to be intercepted are public, no order of authorization shall be issued unless the judicial officer, in addition to the matters provided in subsection (a) of this section, determines that there is a special need to intercept wire communications over the facilities.

(c)(1)  Issuance of orders shall be subject to subdivision (2) of this subsection if the facilities from which or the place where the wire, electronic, or oral communications are to be intercepted:

(A)  are being used, or are about to be used, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by a licensed attorney, a member of the clergy as defined in Rule 505(1) of the Vermont Rules of Evidence, or a physician, dentist, nurse, or mental health professional as defined in Rule 503 of the Vermont Rules of Evidence; or

(B)  are a place used primarily for habitation by a husband and wife or civil union partners.

(2)  In circumstances described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, no order shall be issued unless the judicial officer, in addition to the matters provided in subsection (a) of this section, determines that there is a special need to intercept wire, electronic, or oral communications over those facilities or in those places, and that the interceptions will be conducted in a way that minimizes or eliminates interception of privileged communication between lawyers and clients, members of the clergy and confidants, physicians and patients, husbands and wives, or civil union partners.

§ 4744.  Form and content of orders

(a)  Each order authorizing the interception of any wire, electronic, or oral communications shall specify:

(1)  The identity or a particular description of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted.

(2)  The nature and location of the communications facilities as to which or the place where authority to intercept is granted.

(3)  A particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted and a statement of the particular offense to which they relate.

(4)  The period of time during which the interception is authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception shall automatically terminate when the described communications have been first obtained.

(b)  No order entered under this section may authorize the interception of any wire, electronic, or oral communications for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization, nor in any event longer than 30 days.  Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with section 4742 of this title and the judicial officer making the findings required by section 4743 of this title.  An application for an extension of an order shall be made to the judicial officer who issued the initial order unless for good cause shown in the application for an extension pursuant to section 4742 of this title.  The period of extension shall be no longer than the judicial officer deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and, in no event, for longer than 30 days.  Every order and extension shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in a way that minimizes the interception of communications not otherwise subject to interception under this chapter, and must terminate upon attainment of the authorized objective or, in any event, in 30 days.

(c)  Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to this chapter, the order may require reports to be made to the judicial officer who issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of the authorized objective and the need for continued interception.  These reports shall be made at whatever intervals the judicial officer requires.

(d)  A court order issued by a judicial officer authorizing the interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications may direct an officer, employee, or agent of any communications common carrier or electronic communications service to provide information, facilities, and technical assistance to the applicant prosecutor, pursuant to this chapter, is designated to intercept wire, electronic, or oral communications.  The communications common carrier or electronic communications service shall, if ordered, immediately furnish the applicant prosecutor all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the communications carrier or electronic communications service is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted.  A communications common carrier or electronic communications service shall furnish the information, facilities, and technical assistance at its prevailing rate or tariffs to the applicant prosecutor so designated to intercept wire, electronic, or oral communications.

§ 4745.  Approval of interception of wire, electronic, or

              oral communicationS

(a)  An order of approval of the interception of any wire, electronic, or oral communications relating to an offense other than that specified in the order of authorization may be issued where the court finds in an application for an order of approval submitted in the same manner as an application for authorization as provided in section 4742 of this title that the interception was otherwise made in accordance with this chapter.  This application shall be made as soon as practicable.

(b)  In addition to any other right to appeal, the state shall have the right to appeal from a denial of an order of approval made under this section.  Such appeal may be made under seal and shall remain under seal except for good cause shown.  The appeal shall be taken in the manner provided by law as an appeal from a final judgment, except that notice of appeal shall be filed within seven days of the denial.

§ 4746.  Execution of orders

(a)  An order may be executed pursuant to its terms anywhere in the state.

(b)  An order may be executed by the authorized applicant personally, by another law enforcement officer designated by the applicant, or by the judicial officer.

(c)  The order shall be executed according to its terms during the hours specified by the order, and for the period authorized, or a part of that period; and any device installed for the purpose of interception must be removed as soon after termination of the interception as practicable.  Entry upon private premises for the removal of the device is deemed to be authorized by the warrant.

§ 4747.  Maintenance and custody of records

(a)  The contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communications intercepted by any means authorized by this chapter shall, if practicable, be recorded in any manner designated by the law enforcement officer who made the application.  The recording of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communications under this section shall be done in a way that will protect the recording from editing or other alterations.  Immediately upon the expiration of the period of the order or extensions of the order, the recordings shall be made available to the judicial officer issuing the order and shall be sealed under his or her directions.  Custody of the recordings shall be wherever the judicial officer issuing the order directs.  The recordings shall not be destroyed except on an order of a judicial officer, and in any event, shall be kept for three years. An order to destroy the recording shall be appealable as an appeal from a final judgment.  Duplicate recordings may be made for use or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsections 4749(a) and (b) of this title for investigations or other court proceedings in criminal matters.  The presence of the seal provided for by this section or a satisfactory explanation for its absence shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communications or evidence derived from them at any bail hearing or pretrial hearing.

(b)  Applications made and orders granted under this subchapter shall be sealed by the judicial officer.  The judicial officer issuing the order shall direct that a clerk of a superior or district court shall have custody of the application and order.  The judicial officer issuing the order shall designate a clerk of a court having jurisdiction over the designated offense for which the order was issued or the clerk of the Washington superior court as the custodian.  The application shall remain under seal until the order is executed and (1) the wire, electronic, or oral communications seized pursuant to the order is offered in a proceeding; or (2) is subject to a motion to suppress.  The applications and orders shall not be destroyed except on order of the judicial officer and in any event shall be kept for three years.

(c)  Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit a prosecuting attorney’s obligations to disclose materials to a defendant pursuant to Rule 16 of the Vermont Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(d)  Any violation of the provisions of this section may be punished as contempt of court.

§ 4748.  Return of inventory

(a)  Within a reasonable time but not later than 90 days after the termination of the period of the order or of extensions of the order, the judicial officer issuing the initial order shall cause an inventory to be served on the person named in the order or application, the clerk of the court designated as custodian of the application and order granted under this subchapter, and any other parties to the intercepted communications the judicial officer may determine in his or her direction to be in the interest of justice.  The inventory shall include:

(1)  Notice of the entry of the order or the application for a denied order of approval.

(2)  The date of the entry of the order or the denial of the application for an order of approval.

(3)  The period of authorized, approved, or disapproved interception.

(4)  A statement that, during the period, wire, electronic, or oral communications were or were not intercepted.

(b)  The judicial officer issuing the initial order, upon the filing of a motion, may in his or her discretion make available for inspection to the person or the person’s counsel those portions of the intercepted communications, applications, and orders the judicial officer determines to be in the interest of justice.  On an ex parte showing of good cause to the judicial officer, the serving of the inventory required by this section may be postponed.

§ 4749.  Disclosure and use of intercepted wire,

               ELECTRONIC, or oral communications

(a)  A law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communications, or evidence derived from them, may disclose the contents to a prosecutor or a law enforcement officer certified by the Vermont criminal justice training council as having satisfactorily completed the approved training programs required to meet the minimum training standards applicable to that person pursuant to 20 V.S.A. § 2358 to the extent that disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance of the official duties of the person making or receiving the disclosure.

(b)  A prosecutor or a law enforcement officer certified by the Vermont criminal justice training council as having satisfactorily completed the approved training programs required to meet the minimum training standards applicable to that person pursuant to 20 V.S.A. § 2358 who, by any means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communications or evidence derived from them may use the contents to the extent that their use is appropriate to the proper performance of his or her official duties.

(c)  Any person who has received, by any means authorized by this chapter, any information concerning wire, electronic, or oral communications or evidence derived from them intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter may disclose the contents of that communication or the evidence derived therefrom while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any criminal proceeding in any court of the United States or of this or any other state or in any federal or state grand jury proceeding or an inquest proceeding.

(d)  No otherwise privileged wire, electronic, or oral communications intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of this chapter shall lose its privileged character.

§ 4750.  Notice of intention

The contents of any intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communications or evidence derived therefrom shall not be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any criminal proceeding unless each party, no fewer than 10 days before the proceeding, has been furnished with a copy of the application, order, and inventory under which the interception was authorized or approved.  This 10-day period may be waived if the judge finds that it was not possible to furnish the party with the information more than 10 days before the proceeding, and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in receiving the information.

§ 4751.  Suppression of evidence

(a)  Any aggrieved person charged with a criminal offense may move to suppress the contents of any intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communications or evidence derived therefrom pursuant to Rule 12(b)(3) of the Vermont Rules of Criminal Procedure, on the grounds that:

(1)  the communication was unlawfully intercepted;

(2)  the order under which it was intercepted is insufficient on its face;

(3)  the interception was not made in conformity with the order;

(4)  notice was not made as provided in section 4750 of this title; or

(5)  the seal provided in subsection 4747(b) of this title is not present, and there is no satisfactory explanation for its absence.

(b)  A motion under this section shall be made before trial, unless there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of the grounds for the motion.  If the motion is granted, the contents of the intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communications or evidence derived from them shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter.  The judge, upon the filing of the motion by the aggrieved person, may in his or her discretion make available to the aggrieved person or the person’s counsel for inspection the portions of the intercepted communications or evidence derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice.

(c)  The state shall have the right to seek an appeal pursuant to section 7403 of this title and Rule 5 of the Vermont Rules of Appellate Procedure from an order granting a motion to suppress made under this section.

§ 4752.  Civil Remedies

(a)  No actionable duty nor any right of action shall accrue against the state, a municipality, an agency of the state or municipality, or an employee of the state or municipality from the interception, disclosure, or use of wire, electronic, or oral communications pursuant to an order issued under this subchapter.

(b)  Good faith reliance on a court order issued under this chapter shall constitute a complete defense to any civil action brought under this subchapter or any other law.  Any communications common carrier and its employees shall be deemed to have acted in good faith on receipt of a certified copy of the court order issued under this chapter and the representations of the prosecutor or a law enforcement officer.

§ 4753.  Annual report of interceptions to the general                   assembly

(a)  On February 1 of each year, the attorney general and the executive director of the department of state’s attorneys and sheriffs shall submit a report to the general assembly stating the number of applications made for orders during the previous year and the number of orders issued.  In addition, the report shall provide, for each wiretap order and renewal:

(1)  A breakdown of the effective period of the wiretap.

(2)  The designation of the offenses for which the wiretap was sought.

(3)  The number of interceptions made by the wiretap during the reported

year.

(4)  An indication of whether any criminal charges were filed in the courts of Vermont as a result of those interceptions.

(5)  An indication, if any motions to suppress were made, whether the motions were granted.

(6)  The prosecutorial results, if any, of the wiretap, including the criminal sentences imposed on any individual who pleads or is convicted of a crime in which wiretaps were instituted.

(b)  If the wiretap order is a renewal from a previous year or a case is closed in which a wiretap order had been previously obtained, the report shall list with this information a separate breakdown of the information for prior years.  The report shall not include any information on wiretaps which remain in operation at the time the report is filed.  This report shall be a public document.  The report shall also include the number of pen registers and trap and trace authorized devices.

§ 4754.  Conformity to the law of the United States

Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter, any court to which an application is made in accordance with this chapter may take any evidence, make any finding, or issue any order required to conform the proceedings or the issuance of any order of authorization or approval as provided in this chapter to the provisions of the constitution or any law of the United States.

Sec. 3.  13 V.S.A. chapter 155, subchapter 3 is added to read:

Subchapter 3.  Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices

§ 4771.  Definitions

As used in this subchapter:

(1)  “Designated offense” means an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of more than two years.

(2)  “Judicial officer” shall mean a justice of the Vermont supreme court or a superior or district judge.

(3)  “Law enforcement officer” means any officer of the United States, any person employed by the department of public safety and certified by the Vermont criminal justice training council as having satisfactorily completed the approved training programs required to meet the minimum training standards applicable to that person pursuant to section 2358 of Title 20, the attorney general, an assistant attorney general, a state’s attorney, or a deputy state’s attorney.

(4)  “Pen register” means a device which records or decodes electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise transmitted on the telephone line to which the device is attached, but does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or electronic communications service for billing, or recording as an incident to billing, for communications services provided by the provider or any device used by a provider or customer of a wire communications service for cost accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business.

(5)  “Prosecutor” means the attorney general, an assistant attorney general, a state’s attorney, or a deputy state’s attorney.

(6)  “Trap and trace device” means a device which captures the incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number of an instrument or device from which wire or electronic communications were transmitted.

(7)  “Wire communications” has the meaning set forth in section 4741 of this title.

§ 4772.  Application for an order for a pen register or a                              trap and trace device

(a)  A law enforcement officer may apply in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation to a judicial officer for an order or an extension pursuant to the provisions of section 4773 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device in order to obtain information regarding a designated offense.

(b)  An application pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall include:

(1)  The identity of the law enforcement officer making the application and the identity of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and

(2)  A certification by the applicant that the information likely to be obtained is relevant and necessary to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by the office of the attorney general or state’s attorney, that other investigative procedures have been or are being initiated or conducted, and that the request for the issuance of the pen register or trap and trace device, or both, is necessary to further an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by that agency.

§ 4773.  Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap                                   and trace device

(a)  Upon an application made pursuant to section 4772 of this title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device if the court is reasonably satisfied that the information likely to be obtained is relevant and necessary to further an ongoing criminal investigation, and that use of a pen register or trap and trace device is the least intrusive way to obtain that information.

(b)  An order issued under this section shall specify:

(1)  The identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in whose name is listed the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached.

(2)  The identity of the person who is the subject of the criminal investigation.

(3)  The number and physical location of the telephone lines to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and trace order.

(4)  A statement of the offense to which the information likely to be obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device is relevant.

(5)  Direction, upon the request of the applicant, for the furnishing of information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section 4774 of this title.

(c)  An order issued pursuant to this section shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device for no longer than 60 days.

(d)  Extensions of the order may be granted only upon an application pursuant to section 4772 of this title and upon the judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section.  Each extension shall not exceed 60 days.

(e)  An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device shall direct that:

(1)  the order remains sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and

(2)  the person owning or leasing the line to which the pen register or a

trap and trace device is attached, or who has been ordered by the court to provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to the listed subscriber or to any other person, unless or until otherwise ordered by the court.

§ 4774.  Assistance in installation and use of pen register                                or a trap and trace device

(a)  If assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 4773 of this title, upon the request of the law enforcement officer authorized to install and use a pen register, the provider of the wire communications service immediately shall furnish the law enforcement officer with all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the provider’s services.

(b)  If installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 4773 of this title, upon the request of the law enforcement officer, a provider of a wire communications service immediately shall install the device on the appropriate line and shall furnish the law enforcement officer all additional information, facilities, and technical assistance, including installation and operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the provider’s services.  The results of the trap and trace device, unless otherwise ordered by the court shall be furnished to the law enforcement officer, designated by the court, at reasonable intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order.

(c)  A provider of a wire communications service who furnishes facilities or technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably compensated for reasonable expenses incurred in providing these facilities and assistance.

(d)  No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of a wire communications service, its officers, employees, or agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with a court order under this chapter.

(e)  Good faith reliance on a court order, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization shall be an absolute defense against any civil or criminal action brought pursuant to this chapter or any other law.



Published by:

The Vermont General Assembly
115 State Street
Montpelier, Vermont


www.leg.state.vt.us