Introduced by Representatives Fisher of Lincoln, Lorber of Burlington, Barnard of Richmond, Clarkson of Woodstock, Deen of Westminster, Donahue of Northfield, Dowland of Holland, Evans of Essex, French of Randolph, Haas of Rochester, Head of S. Burlington, Howard of Rutland City, Hutchinson of Randolph, Jerman of Essex, Jewett of Ripton, Johnson of South Hero, Kiss of Burlington, Kitzmiller of Montpelier, Larson of Burlington, Leriche of Hardwick, Maier of Middlebury, Marek of Newfane, Martin of Springfield, Martin of Wolcott, Masland of Thetford, McCullough of Williston, McLaughlin of Royalton, Milkey of Brattleboro, Minter of Waterbury, Nuovo of Middlebury, Obuchowski of Rockingham, Pellett of Chester, Pillsbury of Brattleboro, Potter of Clarendon, Randall of Troy, Reese of Pomfret, Rodgers of Glover, Rusten of Halifax, Seibert of Norwich, Severance of Colchester, Shand of Weathersfield, Sharpe of Bristol and Zuckerman of Burlington
Subject: Elections; statewide and national offices; instant runoff voting
Statement of purpose: This bill proposes to establish an instant runoff method of casting, sorting, and counting votes to promote the election of statewide offices by a majority of votes. Elections for United States senator and United States representative and electors for United States president would also be conducted and tabulated by the instant runoff method.
AN ACT RELATING TO ELECTION FOR STATEWIDE AND NATIONAL OFFICES BY THE INSTANT RUNOFF VOTING METHOD
It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont:
Sec. 1. FINDINGS
(a) The legislature finds that:
(1) The principle of majority rule is fundamental to the concept of democracy. When possible, election laws should be structured to uphold and facilitate this basic principle.
(2) In a multicandidate race, when no candidate receives a majority, the candidate with the most votes (the plurality) may actually be the candidate most opposed by the majority of voters.
(3) On 22 occasions in Vermont history, the governor was elected by the general assembly rather than by the voters.
(4) In 35 percent of all election years in Vermont, one or more federal or statewide races had a result with no majority.
(5) In one election with no majority winner in the governor’s race, the general assembly deadlocked and elected no governor, forcing the lieutenant governor to serve as acting governor.
(6) In another election, with no majority in the treasurer’s race, the general assembly elected the candidate who came in third with just three percent of the popular vote, and subsequently refused to serve, leaving the state with no treasurer.
(b) The general assembly further finds that:
(1) The delay from November to the convening of the legislature in January, in determining who will be governor, may be problematic in terms of preparing a proposed budget and finding qualified citizens able to leave their private sector employment for an administration that may never come into being.
(2) It would be desirable, and there is a popular preference, to have a direct popular election of the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, and treasurer, while preserving the majority requirement.
(3) It would be desirable, and there is a popular preference, to have a direct popular election by majority vote in all statewide elections for the offices of secretary of state, attorney general, auditor of accounts, U.S. senator, U.S. representative, and elector for U.S. president and vice president.
(c) The legislature further finds that a voting system known as “preferential voting” in Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, and popularly known as “instant runoff voting,” which has been used for governmental elections for over 80 years in Australia, as well as in the Republic of Ireland and in England, can fulfill these goals of majority rule, with direct popular election.
Sec. 2. 17 V.S.A. § 2103(43) is added to read:
(43) “Instant runoff method” means a method of casting, sorting, and counting votes as set forth in sections 2473a and 2593 of this title that accomplishes the same effect as all voters participating in a runoff election, whereby only the two candidates with the greatest number of first choices advance to a runoff count in which each ballot counts as a vote for whichever of the final candidates is ranked higher on that ballot.
Sec. 3. 17 V.S.A. § 2473a is added to read:
§ 2473a. INSTANT RUNOFF METHOD; APPLICATION; BALLOTS; RULES
(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 2472 of this title to the contrary, the instant runoff method shall be used in all general election contests for the following offices: governor, lieutenant governor, treasurer, secretary of state, auditor of accounts, attorney general, U.S. senator, U.S. representative, president, and vice president.
(b) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the secretary of state may, by rule:
(1) provide for the use of mechanical, electronic, or other devices for marking, sorting, and counting the ballots and tabulating the results;
(2) modify the form of the ballots and the directions to voters; and
(3) prescribe the details with respect to the method of marking, sorting, counting, invalidating, and the tabulating of votes, provided that no change shall be made which will alter the intent or principles embodied in this chapter.
(c) Ballots approved under this section shall be simple and easy to understand, and shall allow a voter to rank candidates for an office in order of choice. If practical, ballots shall be designed such that voters may mark their first choices in the same manner as that for offices not elected by the instant runoff method. If the secretary determines that the number of candidates for a particular office exceeds the practical space requirements for ranking all candidates on the ballot, the secretary may limit the number of rankings the voter may make. However, if there are three or more candidates for an office, the secretary must provide for ranking at least three choices.
(d) Instructions on the ballot shall include the following statement: “In addition to your first‑choice candidate, you may rank alternate choice candidates if you wish. Marking a second or other choice cannot help defeat your first choice.” Sample ballots to illustrate voting procedures, using fictitious names, shall be posted in or near the voting booth and included in the instruction materials for absentee ballots. Prior to each general election, the secretary of state shall conduct a voter education campaign to educate voters on the use and purpose of the instant runoff voting method. The secretary shall use public service announcements, as well as seek other media cooperation to the maximum extent practicable.
(e) Each ballot bears no more than a single vote for each statewide office, which counts as a vote for the candidate for whom the ballot is credited at the end of an instant runoff tabulation.
Sec. 4. 17 V.S.A. § 2493(c) is added to read:
(c) In the case of elections conducted by the instant runoff method, the secretary of state shall adopt rules to ensure that the arrangement of names, offices, and choice on each type of machine conforms as nearly as practical to the ballot design adopted by the secretary under section 2473a of this title.
Sec. 5. 17 V.S.A. § 2587(b) are amended to read:
(b) If the voter marks more names than there are persons to be elected to an office, except as provided in section 2473a of this title, or marks contradictory sides on any public question, his or her ballot shall not be counted for that office or public question.
Sec. 6. 17 V.S.A. § 2592 is amended to read:
§ 2592. CANVASSING COMMITTEES; CANVASS OF VOTES IN GENERAL OR SPECIAL ELECTIONS
* * *
The In the case of candidates other than candidates for the offices
of governor, lieutenant governor, treasurer, secretary of state, auditor of
accounts, attorney general, U.S. senator, U.S. representative, president, and
vice president, the canvassing committee shall declare the person receiving
the largest number of votes for each office to be elected, and it shall issue a
certificate of election, signed by a majority of the canvassing committee, in
substantially the following form:
State of Vermont)
At ..................., on
the ...... day of ..........
19.... 20…., a canvassing committee
appointed by law completed a canvass of the returns cast at a general election
held on the ...... day of .........., 19..... 20…. for the office
of ................... The committee hereby certifies that ..................
of ................. was duly elected to the office by the voters present and
The committee shall send or deliver the certificate to the candidate elected. In the case of representatives to the general assembly, the committee shall also send or deliver a copy of each certificate to the secretary of state.
* * *
In the case of the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, treasurer,
secretary of state, attorney general, and auditor of accounts, the canvassing
committee shall prepare a certificate of election but shall not sign it. The
prepared certificate shall be presented to the official canvassing committee
appointed by the general assembly, pursuant to Chapter II,
47 of the Vermont Constitution of the State of Vermont, for their
its use if they desire it desires.
Sec. 7. 17 V.S.A. § 2593 is added to read:
§ 2593. INSTANT RUNOFF METHOD; INSTRUCTIONS FOR
(a) The provisions of section 2587 of this title shall apply to elections conducted by the instant runoff method unless inconsistent with the provisions of this section.
(b) The following procedures shall be used to determine the winners in elections conducted by the instant runoff method:
(1) Ballots shall be counted initially by the election officials according to the first choice marked on each ballot. If one candidate receives a majority of the votes cast, the canvassing committee for state and national offices shall issue a certificate of election in the manner provided in section 2592 of this title. With respect to the presidential election, the certificates of election shall be issued as provided in sections 2592 and 2731 of this title.
(2) If, at the end of the initial count, no candidate receives a majority of first choices, the canvassing committee established in section 2592 of this title shall forthwith petition the Washington County superior court to determine the candidate who received the major part of the votes by conducting instant runoff recounts in the manner provided in this section. The petition shall be supported by a statement that no candidate is the first choice of a majority of voters. Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall appoint an instant runoff count committee in the manner provided for appointment of a recount committee under subsection 2602(a) of this title, and follow substantially the same procedures provided for recounts under subchapter 9 of chapter 51 of this title.
(3) The instant runoff count committee shall sort and count votes for candidates. If, in the first round, no candidate received a majority of first choices, all candidates shall be eliminated except the two candidates with the greatest number of first choices. Ballots which rank eliminated candidates and which indicate one of the final candidates as an alternate choice shall be counted as votes for whichever of the final candidates is ranked higher for that office on each ballot. In each round, each ballot is counted as one vote for the highest ranked advancing candidate on that ballot.
(4) In the case of the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, treasurer, secretary of state, attorney general, and auditor of accounts, the court shall prepare a certificate of election but shall not sign it and forward it to the secretary of state and the official canvassing committee appointed by the general assembly, pursuant to Chapter II, § 47 of the Vermont constitution, for its use in declaring the candidate who received the major part of the votes elected. With respect to any other office, the court shall prepare and sign the certificate, and deliver a certified copy to the secretary of state.
(5) If, at the conclusion of the instant runoff tabulation, neither of the last two remaining candidates for the office of governor, lieutenant governor, or treasurer receives a majority of the votes cast, excluding blank and spoiled votes, the court shall prepare a report of no election. The report and the tabulations performed by the committee shall be forwarded to the official canvassing committee appointed by the general assembly, pursuant to Chapter II, § 47 of the Vermont constitution, and to the full general assembly for its use in the election of the governor, lieutenant governor, or treasurer if it desires. The general assembly shall proceed to elect one of the three candidates for whom the greatest number of votes has been returned.
(6) If, at the conclusion of the instant runoff tabulation, neither of the last two remaining candidates in an election for the office of secretary of state, auditor of accounts, attorney general, U.S. senator, or U.S. representative received a majority, the report and the tabulations performed by the instant runoff count committee shall be forwarded to the Washington superior court which shall issue a certificate of election to whichever of the two remaining candidates received the greatest number of votes at the conclusion of the instant runoff tabulation, and send a certified copy of the tabulation and results to the secretary of state.
(c) The following general provisions shall apply whenever the instant runoff method is used:
(1) If after the first choice candidate is eliminated, a ballot does not indicate one of the advancing candidates as an alternate choice, the ballot is exhausted.
(2) The fact that a voter gives more than one ranking to the same candidate shall not invalidate the vote. The highest ranking given a particular candidate shall count as long as the candidate is not eliminated.
(3) If there is a tie between candidates so that two or more candidates have an equal number of first choices and more than two candidates would advance to the final round, the instant runoff method shall be used by eliminating all candidates receiving fewer first choices than the tied candidates, to determine which two candidates shall advance as the two candidates in the final round of counting.
Sec. 8. 17 V.S.A. § 2731 is amended to read:
§ 2731. CERTIFICATES OF ELECTION
the canvassing board provided for in section 2592 of this title meets, it shall
issue its certificates of election, with respect to the presidential election,
to the electors nominated by the party whose candidate
for president has
received the greatest number of votes received a majority of the votes
cast. If the board’s examination of first choices does not reveal the majority
winner, the certificate shall instead be issued in accordance with the provisions
of section 2593 of this title.
Sec. 9. 17 V.S.A. § 2732 is amended to read:
§ 2732. MEETING OF ELECTORS
The electors shall meet
at the state house on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December
next following their election, to vote for president and
president of the United States, agreeably to the laws of the United States.
If there is a vacancy in the electoral college on that day, occasioned by
death, refusal to act, neglect to attend, failure of a person elected to
qualify, or for other cause, the other electors present shall at once fill such
vacancy viva voce and by a plurality of votes. When all the electors appear or
a vacancy therein is filled, the electors shall perform the duties required of
them by the constitution and laws of the United
States. If a vacancy occurs and is
filled as aforesaid, the electors shall attach to the certificate of their
votes a statement showing how such a vacancy occurred and their action
thereon. The electors must vote for the candidates for president and vice-president
who received the greatest number of votes at the general election vice
president who were declared the winners in accordance with the provisions of
section 2593 or 2731 of this title.
Sec. 10. 17 V.S.A. § 2473 is amended to read:
§ 2473. PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
When the president and
vice-president vice president are to be
elected, the ballot shall contain the names of all candidates for these
offices, arranged in alphabetical order according to the surname of the
presidential candidate of each party. The names of the electors shall not be
printed on the ballot. A vote for the presidential and vice-presidential
vice presidential nominees of a party shall constitute a vote for the
electors nominated by that party.
The name and state of residence of the presidential and
vice presidential candidate of each party shall be listed on separate
lines joined together by a bracket, followed by the party designations and a
single square for that pair of candidates. In lieu of the instructions:
“Vote for not more than (the number of candidates to be elected)”, the
following instructions shall appear: “Mark ONE square only.”
If a candidate for president whose name is not printed on the ballot
the greatest number of votes for president is declared the winner as
provided in section 2593 of this title, the secretary of state shall notify
him that candidate of that fact, and within two weeks thereafter,
the candidate shall file with the secretary of state , a list of freemen
voters equal to the number of electors which the state is entitled to
elect. The list shall be signed by the candidate personally. The persons so
named shall be electors, having the duties prescribed in this title.
Sec. 11. 17 V.S.A. § 2594 is added to read:
§ 2594. SORTING AND COUNTING OF VOTES BY THE CANVASSING
COMMITTEE OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The canvassing committee of the general assembly appointed in accordance with Chapter II, § 47 of the Constitution of the State of Vermont shall retain the right to directly sort and count the votes for governor, lieutenant governor, and treasurer using the instant runoff method set forth in section 2593 of this title. The municipal clerks, county clerks, secretary of state, and state police shall provide such assistance and cooperation as may be required if the canvassing committee of the general assembly decides to conduct a direct sorting and counting of the votes as provided in Chapter II, § 47 of the Vermont constitution.
Sec. 12. FINDINGS; INTENT; SEVERABILITY
(a) The general assembly finds that the system of instant runoff voting contained in this act complies with the provisions of § 47 of Chapter II of the Vermont constitution.
(b) In the event that a court of competent jurisdiction should find that the instant runoff method of tabulating votes does not comply with the requirements of determining if a candidate has received the major part of the votes as set forth in Chapter II, § 47 of the Vermont constitution, in an election for governor, lieutenant governor, or treasurer, the general assembly intends that the instant runoff voting method, as described in this act, be employed, but that the instant runoff tabulation results, in an election for governor, lieutenant governor, or treasurer, shall be available to the general assembly for its use if it desires in carrying out its task of electing a governor, lieutenant governor, or treasurer from among the three candidates receiving the greatest number of votes.
Sec. 13. EFFECTIVE DATE
This act shall take effect on January 1, 2006 and shall apply to the 2006 general election and subsequent general elections.
The Vermont General Assembly
115 State Street